Main articles: Iranian art and Persian carpet
Ceiling of the Lotfollah Mosque

Iranian works of art show a great variety in style, in different regions and periods. The main connections between these works are iconographic motifs.[309] Combination is another major element in the art of Iran, specifically the depictions of composite human and animal figures, which also refer to the mythology of Iran.

Iranian art encompasses many disciplines, including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking, and stonemasonry. The Median and Achaemenid empires left a significant classical art scene which remained as basic influences for the art of the later eras. Art of the Parthians was a mixture of Iranian and Hellenistic artworks, with their main motifs being scenes of royal hunting expeditions and investitures.[310][311] The Sassanid art played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art,[81] which carried forward to the Islamic world, and much of what later became known as Islamic learning, such as philology, literature, jurisprudence, philosophy, medicine, architecture, and science, were of Sassanid basis.[312][313][314]

There is also a vibrant Iranian modern and contemporary art scene, with its genesis in the late 1940s. The 1949 Apadana Gallery of Tehran, which was operated by Mahmoud Javadi Pour and other colleagues, and the emergence of artists such as Marcos Grigorian in the 1950s, signaled a commitment to the creation of a form of modern art grounded in Iran.[315]

Iranian carpet-weaving dates back to the Bronze Age, and is one of the most distinguished manifestations of the art of Iran. Iran is the world's largest producer and exporter of handmade carpets, producing three quarters of the world's total output and having a share of 30% of world's export markets.[316][317]

Iran is also home to one of the largest jewel collections in the world.


The history of Iranian architecture goes back to the 7th millennium BC.[318] Iranians were among the first to use mathematics, geometry, and astronomy in architecture.

Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, developing gradually and coherently out of earlier traditions and experience.[319] The guiding motifs of Iranian architecture are unity, continuity, and cosmic symbolism.[320]

Iran ranks seventh among countries with the most archaeological architectural ruins and attractions from antiquity, as recognized by UNESCO.[321]


Main article: Persian literature
Mausoleum of Ferdowsi in Tus

Iranian literature is one of the world's oldest literatures, dating back to the poetry of Avesta and Zoroastrian literature.

Poetry is used in many Iranian classical works, whether in literature, science, or metaphysics. Persian language has been dubbed as a worthy language to serve as a conduit for poetry, and is considered as one of the four main bodies of world literature.[322] Dialects of Persian are sporadically spoken throughout regions from China to Syria and Russia, though mainly in the Iranian Plateau.[323][324]

Iran has a number of famous poets; most notably Rumi, Ferdowsi, Hafez, Saadi Shirazi, Khayyám Ney-Shapuri, and Nezami Ganjavi.[325] Historically, Iranian literature has inspired writers including Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Henry David Thoreau, and Ralph Waldo Emerson.[87][88][89]


Depiction of a Fravarti in Persepolis

Iranian philosophy originates to Indo-Iranian roots, with Zarathustra's teachings having major influences.

According to the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, the chronology of the subject and science of philosophy starts with the Indo-Iranians, dating this event to 1500 BC. The Oxford dictionary also states, "Zarathushtra's philosophy entered to influence Western tradition through Judaism, and therefore on Middle Platonism."

While there are ancient relations between the Indian Vedas and the Iranian Avesta, the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions were characterized by fundamental differences, especially in their implications for the human being's position in society and their view of man's role in the universe.

The Cyrus cylinder, which is known as "the first charter of human rights," is often seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by Zarathustra, and developed in Zoroastrian schools of the Achaemenid Era.[326][327]

The earliest tenets of Zoroastrian schools are part of the extant scriptures of the Zoroastrian religion in Avestan language. Among them are treatises such as the Shikand-gumanic Vichar, Denkard, Zātspram, as well as older passages of Avesta, and the Gathas.[328]



Iranian mythology consists of ancient Iranian folklore and stories, all involving extraordinary beings. They reflect attitudes towards the confrontation of good and evil, actions of the gods, and the exploits of heroes and fabulous creatures.

Myths play a crucial part in the culture of Iran, and understanding of them is increased when they are considered within the context of actual events in the history of Iran. The geography of Greater Iran, a vast area covering the present-day Iran, the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Central Asia, with its high mountain ranges, plays the main role in much of the Iranian mythology.

Shahnameh of Ferdowsi is the main collection of the mythology of Iran, which draws heavily on the stories and characters of Zoroastrianism, from the texts of Avesta, Denkard, and Bundahishn.


Haft-Seen (or Haft-Čin), a customary of the Iranian New Year

Iran has three official calendar systems, including the Solar calendar as the main, the Gregorian calendar for international and Christian events, and the Lunar calendar for Islamic events.

The main national annual of Iran is Nowruz, an ancient tradition celebrated on 21 March to mark the beginning of spring and the New Year of Iran. It is enjoyed by people with different religions, but is a holiday for Zoroastrians. It was registered on the list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity,[329] and was described as the Persian New Year[330][331][332][333] by UNESCO in 2009.

Other remained national annuals of Iran include:

  • Čā'r Šanbe Suri: A prelude to Nowruz, in honor of Ātar (the Holy Fire), celebrated by fireworks and fire-jumping, on the last Wednesday before Nowruz
  • Sizda' be Dar: Leaving the house to join the nature, on the thirteenth day of the New Year (April 2)
  • Čelle ye Zemestān: Also known as Yaldā; the longest night of the year, celebrated on the eve of Winter Solstice, by reciting poetry and having the customary fruits which include watermelon, pomegranate, and mixed nuts
  • Tirgān: A mid summer festival, in honor of Tishtrya, celebrated on Tir 13 (July 4), by splashing water, reciting poetry, and having traditional dishes such as šole-zard and spinach soup
  • Mehrgān: An autumn festival, in honor of Mithra, celebrated on Mehr 16 (October 8), by family gathering and setting a table of sweets, flowers, and a mirror
  • Sepand Ārmazgān: Dedicated to Ameša Spenta (the Holy Devotion); celebrated by giving presents to partners, on Esfand 15 (February 24)

Along with the national celebrations, annuals such as Ramezān, Eid e Fetr, and Ruz e Āšurā are marked by Muslims; Noel, Čelle ye Ruze, and Eid e Pāk are celebrated by Christians; and the festivals Purim, Eid e Fatir, and Tu Bišvāt are celebrated by Jewish people in Iran.


Main article: Music of Iran
Karna, an ancient Iranian musical instrument from the 6th century BC

Iran is the apparent birthplace of the earliest complex instruments, as evidenced by the archaeological records found in Western Iran, dating back to the 3rd millennium BC.[334] The Iranian use of both vertical and horizontal angular harps have been documented at the sites Madaktu and Kul-e Farah, with the largest collection of Elamite instruments documented at Kul-e Farah. Multiple depictions of horizontal harps were also sculpted in Assyrian palaces, dating back between 865 and 650 BC.

Xenophon's Cyropaedia refers to a great number of singing women at the court of the Achaemenid Iran. Athenaeus of Naucratis states that, by the time of the last Achaemenid king, Artashata (336–330 BC), Achaemenid singing girls were captured by the Macedonian general, Parmenion.[335] Under the Parthian Empire, a type of epic music was taught to youth, depicting the national epics and myths which were later represented in the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi.[336]

History of the Sassanid music is better documented than the earlier periods, and is specially more evident in the Zoroastrian contexts.[337] By the time of Khosrow II, the Sassanid royal court was the host of prominent musicians, namely Ramtin, Bamshad, Nakisa, Azad, Sarkash, and Barbad.

A Safavid painting at Hasht Behesht, depicting a 7th-century Iranian banquet

Some Iranian traditional musical instruments include saz, Persian tar, Azerbaijani tar, dotar, setar, kamanche, harp, barbat, santur, tanbur, qanun, dap, tompak, and ney.

The National Orchestra of Iran, conducted by Khaleghi in the 1940s

The first national music society of the modern-day Iran was founded by Rouhollah Khaleghi in the 1940s, with the School of National Music established in 1949.[338] Today, the main orchestra of Iran include the National Orchestra, the Nations Orchestra, and the Symphony Orchestra of Tehran.

Iranian pop music emerged by the Qajar Era.[339] It was led to major developments in the 1950s, by the emergence of stars such as Viguen, who was referred to as the "king of Persian Pop and Jazz."[340] The 1970s is known as a "Golden Age" for Iranian pop music, where a revolution was formed in the music industry of Iran, using indigenous instruments and forms and adding electric guitar. Hayedeh, Faramarz Aslani, Farhad Mehrad, Googoosh, and Ebi are among the leading artists of this period.

The emergence of genres such as modern rock in the 1970s and hip hop in the 1980s, which replaced the outdated musical styles among the youth, followed major movements and influences in the music of Iran.[341][342][343][344]


Main article: Media of Iran

The state-owned Telecommunication Company of Iran handles telecommunications. The media of Iran is a mixture of private and state-owned, but books and movies must be approved by the The ministry of Ershaad before being released to the public. Iran originally received access to the internet in 1993, and it has become enormously popular among the Iranian youth.


Main articles: Persian theater and Persian dance

Theater background of Iran dates back to antiquity. The earliest recorded representations of dancing figures within Iran were found in prehistoric sites such as Tepe Siyalk and Tepe Mūsīān.[345]

The oldest initiation of theater and phenomena of acting among the people of Iran can be traced in the epic ceremonial theaters, such as Soug e Sivash and Mogh Koshi (Megakhouni), and also dances and theater narrations of Iranian mythological tales reported by Herodotos and Xenophon.

There are several theatrical genres which emerged before the advent of cinema in Iran, including Xeyme Shab Bazi (Puppetry), Saye Bazi (Shadow play), Ru-howzi (Comical plays), and Tazieh (Sorrow plays).

Before the 1979 Revolution, the Iranian national stage had become a famous performing scene for known international artists and troupes,[346] with the Roudaki Hall of Tehran constructed to function as the national stage for opera and ballet. Opened on October 26, 1967, the hall is home to the Symphony Orchestra of Tehran, the Opera Orchestra of Tehran, and the Iranian National Ballet Company, and continues now with Vahdat Hall as its official name.

The opera Rostam o Sohrab, based on the epic of Rostam and Sohrab from Shahnameh, is an example of opera performances in the modern-day Iran.

Cinema and animation

The earliest examples of visual representations in Iranian history are traced back to the bas-reliefs of Persepolis, c. 500 BC. Persepolis was the ritual center of the ancient kingdom of Achaemenids, and the figures at Persepolis remain bound by the rules of grammar and syntax of visual language.[347] The Iranian visual arts reached a pinnacle by the Sassanid Era. A bas-relief from this period in Taq Bostan depicts a complex hunting scene. Similar works from the period have been found to articulate movements and actions in a highly sophisticated manner. It is even possible to see a progenitor of the cinema close-up in one of these works of art, which shows a wounded wild pig escaping from the hunting ground.[348]

By the early 20th century, the five-year-old modern industry of cinema came to Iran. The first Iranian filmmaker was Mirza Ebrahim Khan (Akkas Bashi), the official photographer of Mozaffar od Din Shah of Qajar. He obtained a camera and filmed the Shah's visit to Europe.

In 1904, Mirza Ebrahim Khan (Sahhaf Bashi) opened the first movie theater in Tehran.[349] After him, several others like Russi Khan, Ardeshir Khan, and Ali Vakili tried to establish new movie theaters in Tehran. Until the early 1930s, there were around 15 cinema theaters in Tehran and 11 in other provinces.[348]

The first silent Iranian film was made by Professor Ovanes Ohanian in 1930, and the first sounded one, Lor Girl, was made by Abd ol Hossein Sepanta in 1932.

Behrouz Vossoughi, a well-known Iranian actor who has appeared in more than 90 films, with over 40 years of experience in motion picture industry

The 1960s was a significant decade for Iranian cinema, with 25 commercial films produced annually on average throughout the early 60s, increasing to 65 by the end of the decade. The majority of production focused on melodrama and thrillers. With the screening of the films Kaiser and The Cow, directed by Masoud Kimiai and Dariush Mehrjui respectively in 1969, alternative films established their status in the film industry. Attempts to organize a film festival that had begun in 1954 within the framework of the Golrizan Festival, bore fruits in the form of the Sepas Festival in 1969. The endeavors also resulted in the formation of the Tehran World Festival in 1973.[350]


After the Revolution of 1979, as the new government imposed new laws and standards, a new age in Iranian cinema emerged, starting with Viva... by Khosrow Sinai and followed by many other directors, such as Abbas Kiarostami and Jafar Panahi. Kiarostami, an admired Iranian director, planted Iran firmly on the map of world cinema when he won the Palme d'Or for Taste of Cherry in 1997.[351] The continuous presence of Iranian films in prestigious international festivals, such as the Cannes Film Festival, the Venice Film Festival, and the Berlin International Film Festival, attracted world attention to Iranian masterpieces.[352] In 2006, six Iranian films, of six different styles, represented Iranian cinema at the Berlin International Film Festival. Critics considered this a remarkable event in the history of Iranian cinema.[353][354]

Asghar Farhadi, a well-known Iranian director, has received a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, and was named as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the world by Time Magazine in 2012.

Reproduction of the world's oldest example of animation, dating back to the late half of the 3rd millennium BC, found in Burnt City, Iran

The oldest records of animation in Iran date back to the late 3rd millennium BC. An earthen goblet discovered at the site of the 5,200-year-old Burnt City in southeastern Iran, depicts what could possibly be the world’s oldest example of animation. The artifact bears five sequential images depicting a Persian ibex jumping up to eat the leaves of a tree.[355][356]

The art of animation, as practiced in modern Iran, started in the 1950s. After four decades of Iranian animation production and three-decade experience of Kanoon Institute, the Tehran International Animation Festival (TIAF) was established in February 1999. Every two years, participants from more than 70 countries attend this event in Tehran, which holds Iran's biggest national animation market.[357][358]


Main article: Sport in Iran

With two thirds of Iran's population under the age of 25, many sports are played in Iran, both traditional and modern.

Iran is the birthplace of polo,[359] known as čowgān in Persian, and košti e pahlevāni, meaning the "heroic wrestling." Freestyle wrestling has been traditionally regarded as Iran's national sport, where the national team has been Olympic and world champion.

Football is known as the most popular sport in Iran, with the national team having won the Asian Cup on three occasions.

Volleyball has been Iran's second most popular sport.[360][361] Men's national team ranked fourth in 2014 FIVB Volleyball World League, ranked sixth in 2014 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship, and achieved the best result among the Asian national teams.[362][363][364]

Skiers at the Dizin Ski Resort

Being a mountainous country, Iran is a venue for hiking, rock climbing,[365] and mountain climbing.[366][367]

Iran is home to many skiing resorts, the most famous being Tochal, Dizin, and Shemshak, which are all within one to three hours traveling time from the city of Tehran.[368] Tochal resort is the world's fifth-highest ski resort (3,730 m or 12,238 ft at its highest station).

Basketball is also popular in Iran, where the national team has won three Asian Championships since 2007.[369]

In 1974, Iran became the first country in West Asia to host the Asian Games.


Main article: Iranian cuisine
Kuku Sabzi with herbs, topped with barberries and walnuts

Iranian cuisine is diverse due to its variety of ethnic groups and the influence of other cultures. Herbs are frequently used along with fruits such as plums, pomegranates, quince, prunes, apricots, and raisins. Iranians usually eat plain yogurt with lunch and dinner; it is a staple of the diet in Iran. To achieve a balanced taste, characteristic flavourings such as saffron, dried limes, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed delicately and used in some special dishes. Onions and garlic are normally used in the preparation of the accompanying course, but are also served separately during meals, either in raw or pickled form. Iran is also famous for its caviar.[370]

درباره ایران به انگلیسی قسمت اول

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Persia" redirects here. For other uses, see Persia (disambiguation). This article is about the modern nation. For other uses, see Iran (disambiguation). Islamic Republic of Iran جمهوری اسلامی ایران Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān     Flag Emblem Motto:  "استقلال، آزادی، جمهوری اسلامی" "Esteqlāl, Āzādi, Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi" "Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic" (de facto)[1] Anthem: مهر خاوران Mehr-e Xāvarān "The Eastern Sun"   Capital and largest city Tehran 35°41′N 51°25′E Official languages Persian Spoken languages[2] Persian Azerbaijani Kurdish Lurish Semnani Gilaki Mazandarani Tati Turkmen Arabic Baloch Talysh Georgian Armenian Neo-Aramaic Religion Official: Shia Islam Other recognized religions: Sunni Islam Christianity Judaism Zoroastrianism Demonym Iranian, Persian Government de jure: Islamic Republic de facto: Theocratic-republican hybrid; unitary presidential republic subject to a Supreme Leader[3]  •  Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei  •  President Hassan Rouhani Legislature Islamic Consultative Assembly Unification[4]  •  Median Empire c. 678 BC   •  Achaemenid Empire 550 BC   •  Sassanid Empire[5] 224 AD   •  Safavid Empire 1501[6]   •  Pahlavid dynasty 1925   •  Islamic Republic 1 April 1979   •  Current constitution 24 October 1979   •  Constitution amendment 28 July 1989  Area  •  Total 1,648,195 km2 (18th) 636,372 sq mi  •  Water (%) 0.7 Population  •  2016 estimate 79,115,000 [7] (18th)  •  Density 48/km2 (162nd) 124/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate  •  Total $1,357,028 million[8] (18th)  •  Per capita $17,443[8] GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate  •  Total $419.643 billion[8] (29th)  •  Per capita $5,306[8] (98th) Gini (2013) 37.4[9] medium HDI (2014)  0.766[10] high · 69th Currency Rial (﷼) (IRR) Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)  •  Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30) Date format yyyy/mm/dd (SH) Drives on the right Calling code +98 ISO 3166 code IR Internet TLD .ir ایران.   You may need rendering support to display the Persian text in this article correctly.
Iran (/aɪˈræn/ or i/ɪˈrɑːn/;[11] Persian: Irān – ایران‎‎ [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia (/ˈpɜːrʒə/ or /ˈpɜːrʃə/),[12][13][14] officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران – Jomhuri ye Eslāmi ye Irān [d͡ʒomhuːˌɾije eslɒːˌmije ʔiːˈɾɒːn]), is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[15][16][17] It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia, the de facto Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, and Azerbaijan; to the north by Kazakhstan and Russia across the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Turkmenistan; to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With 78.4 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th-most-populous country.[15][18] It is the only country that has both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. Iran has long been of geostrategic importance because of its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz.[19]
Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations,[20][21] beginning with the formation of the Proto-Elamite and Elamite kingdoms in 3200–2800 BC. The Iranian Medes unified the area into the first of many empires in 625 BC, after which it became the dominant cultural and political power in the region.[4] Iran reached the pinnacle of its power during the Achaemenid Empire founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC, which at its greatest extent comprised major portions of the ancient world, stretching from parts of the Balkans (Thrace-Macedonia, Bulgaria-Paeonia) and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen.[22] The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great. The Parthian Empire emerged from the ashes and was succeeded by the Sassanid Dynasty in 224 AD, under which Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world, along with the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than four centuries.[23][24]
In 633 AD, Rashidun Arabs invaded Iran and conquered it by 651 AD, largely converting Iranian people from their indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism to Islam. Arabic replaced Persian as the official language, while Persian remained the language of both ordinary people and of literature.[25] Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. Establishment of the Safavid Dynasty in 1501, which promoted Twelver Shia Islam as the official religion, marked one of the most important turning points in Iranian and Muslim history.[6][26] Starting منبع : TOP-LEARN |همه چیز درباره ایران به انگلیسی قسمت دوم
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